A depiction of the gradual reduction of the diameter of a carbon nanotube via the process created by Yuzvinsky et al. (Image courtesy Tom Yuzvinsky) A research group has devised a way to control the diameter of a carbon nanotube – down to essentially zero nanometers. This useful new ability, designed by scientists from the University of California at Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, may help carbon nanotubes become more easily incorporated into new technologies. “One of the biggest hurdles in working with carbon nanotubes has been lack of control over their size,” said UC Berkeley physicist Tom Yuzvinsky, the study’s lead author, to PhysOrg.com. “Now that we can precisely set the diameter of carbon nanotubes, we can tailor individual nanoscale devices to meet our needs.”The exceptional electrical and physical properties of carbon nanotubes – for example, they conduct very well and are extremely strong – have led them to become the basis of many nanoscale devices, such as sensors and transistors. But since these properties depend on the size of the nanotubes and methods to precisely control their size have been unreliable, nanotubes have not been as thoroughly incorporated into new technologies as many scientists would like.Yuzvinsky and his colleagues have taken a significant step toward changing this.They began with a multi-walled carbon nanotube (which resembles a few single nanotubes nested together); theirs had four walls. They applied a carefully selected voltage to the nanotube, which caused the outer two walls to break down electrically and fall away. The already-slimmer nanotube was next bombarded with a high-energy electron beam that knocked carbon atoms out of the nanotube, creating vacancies and other defects in its atomic structure. Simultaneously, the group ran a current through the nanotube. This heated it to the point where it could heal its vacancies and defects by spontaneously reforming into a narrower, nearly defect-free nanotube.Repeating this process shrank the nanotube gradually and controllably in a matter of minutes. As the diameter dwindled, Yuzvinsky and his collaborators were careful to adjust the current through nanotube to account for its increasing electrical resistance. This yielded a surprising and important secondary result of their work: that the conductance of a multi-walled carbon nanotube is directly proportional to its diameter. This clears up many conflicting studies of electrical conduction in nanotubes.The researchers followed the changes as they occurred using a transmission electron microscope, which produced detailed images of the nanotube. Eventually, they could see that the nanotube became so narrow (less than one nanometer) that the inner wall broke, leaving two nanotube fragments connected by an unstable bridge of carbon atoms that soon failed as well.Citation: T.D. Yuzvinsky, W. Mickelson, S. Aloni, G.E. Begtrup, A. Kis, and A. Zettl, “Shrinking a Carbon Nanotube.” Nano Lett. (2006) DOI: 10.1021/nl061671jBy Laura Mgrdichian, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com Explore further Citation: How to Shrink a Carbon Nanotube (2006, November 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-11-carbon-nanotube.html Breakthrough gives artificial muscles superhuman strength This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Lunar and solar eclipses make animals do strange things The finding may not only explain bats’ long-distance navigation and foraging abilities, but also may provide insight on when and how magnetic field detection evolved in mammals and non-mammals. So explain the researchers, Yinan Wang, Yongxin Pan, Stuart Parsons, Michael Walker, and Shuyi Zhang, who are from the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, East China Normal University in Shanghai, and the University of Auckland in New Zealand.“The fact that the only two flying vertebrates, bats and birds, do not derive the same information about direction from the Earth’s magnetic field despite apparently similar navigational requirements has very important implications for the evolution of the magnetic sense in vertebrates,” Parsons told PhysOrg.com. “I think it is likely that other mammals possess the ability to detect the field, i.e. have the physiological and anatomical specialization necessary. However, this does not mean that they actually use this information.”In their experiment, the scientists studied the reactions of Nyctalus plancyi bats in an experimental chamber when exposed to an altered magnetic field. The team recorded the hanging positions of the bats with an infrared camera, and then used Helmholtz coils to generate a magnetic field that aligned with the local geomagnetic axis at Beijing, where the experiment took place, with twice the intensity of Earth’s magnetic field. After exposing the bats to the induced magnetic field for several days, the researchers then altered the horizontal and vertical components of the field, both simultaneously and independently. As the group explained, altering the vertical field affects the magnetic inclination, while altering the horizontal field affects the magnetic polarity. Many birds and other non-mammals are known to react to inclination, meaning that they can use information about the different angles that the Earth’s magnetic field is tilted toward the Earth to determine relative latitude. For example, inclination is 90 degrees at the poles (perpendicular to the Earth) and 0 degrees at the equator (parallel to the Earth)—similar to the pattern that lead filings make when placed around a bar magnet. Some birds, like the Arctic Tern, use inclination to annually navigate all the way from the North Pole to the South Pole and back. However, unlike birds, the bats did not react to a change in the vertical field, implying that they do not use inclination when roosting or navigating. On the other hand, when the researchers altered the horizontal field, the bats changed their hanging positions, switching from the northern to the southern end of their basket. The scientists predict that magnetic polarity may help the bats in thermoregulation, since they choose warmer sites to control lactation and development, as well as to minimize the energy used during torpor (hibernation). If they used magnetic polarity in roosting, the scientists suggest, the bats are also likely use polarity to navigate, such as when Nyctalus noctula migrate up to 1600 km between seasons.How do they do it? The scientists explain that animals which use magnetism to navigate are generally thought to use light exposure, magnetite receptors, or both. For example, birds may use a light-dependent mechanism in the right eye for directional information, and a magnetite receptor in the upper beak for detecting variations in magnetic intensity. Most likely, bats use some kind of magnetite receptor. Why the two animals developed sensitivities to different magnetic information is still a question, however. Parsons speculated that an inclination compass may offer more tolerance for birds crossing the equator. Also, when the Earth’s magnetic field occasionally reverses, the birds will not be confused.“It has been suggested that the ability of birds to detect the inclination of the Earth’s magnetic field means that reversal of the polarity of the Earth’s magnetic field will not affect the ability of birds, particularly migratory birds, to set compass courses because there will be a magnetic pole in each hemisphere and the birds will know the direction toward the near pole and the equator as a consequence,” added Walker. “In contrast, the fact that mammals appear to respond to magnetic polarity suggests they will know where magnetic north is but not which hemisphere they are in and may get misled following a reversal of the polarity of the Earth’s magnetic field.”Another significant point from the experiments is that polarity alone is sufficient to navigate long distances. The research also suggests that inclination and polarity detection may have evolved independently in birds and mammals, which means the ability would have emerged after the evolutionary transition from land to air—and would also explain why humans are quite poor at navigating in the absence of a map and a GPS.Citation: Wang, Yinan, Pan, Yongxin, Parsons, Stuart, Walker, Michael, and Zhang, Shuyi. “Bats respond to polarity of a magnetic field.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.0904. Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Researchers have found that bats have a special ability to detect the polarity of a magnetic field, meaning that the creatures can tell the difference between north and south. The only other animal known to have this ability is the mole rat, while birds, fish, amphibians, and all other non-mammals possess a different version of the magnetic compass. Citation: Bats may use magnetic polarity for navigation (2007, September 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-09-magnetic-polarity.html Experimental setup showing the bats’ roosting chamber, with the bats gathered at one end of the basket in response to the polarity of the induced magnetic field. Credit: Yinan Wang, et al. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Viral life cycle of malignant catarrhal fever explained Citation: Scientists develop vaccine against cattle disease (2013, April 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-04-scientists-vaccine-cattle-disease.html Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org) —Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a disease that is almost always fatal in cattle. Cows contract MCF after coming into contact with wildebeest carrying a form of herpes virus known as alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1). In a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Benjamin Dewals of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Liège in Belgium and his team report that they have discovered the gene that enables AlHV-1 infection to progress to MCF, and they have developed a vaccine against the disease. More information: An essential role for γ-herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen homolog in an acute lymphoproliferative disease of cattle, PNAS, Published online before print April 29, 2013, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1216531110 AbstractWildebeests carry asymptomatically alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), a γ-herpesvirus inducing malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) to several ruminant species (including cattle). This acute and lethal lymphoproliferative disease occurs after a prolonged asymptomatic incubation period after transmission. Our recent findings with the rabbit model indicated that AlHV-1 infection is not productive during MCF. Here, we investigated whether latency establishment could explain this apparent absence of productive infection and sought to determine its role in MCF pathogenesis. First, whole-genome cellular and viral gene expression analyses were performed in lymph nodes of MCF-developing calves. Whereas a severe disruption in cellular genes was observed, only 10% of the entire AlHV-1 genome was expressed, contrasting with the 45% observed during productive infection in vitro. In vivo, the expressed viral genes included the latency-associated nuclear antigen homolog ORF73 but none of the regions known to be essential for productive infection. Next, genomic conformation analyses revealed that AlHV-1 was essentially episomal, further suggesting that MCF might be the consequence of a latent infection rather than abortive lytic infection. This hypothesis was further supported by the high frequencies of infected CD8+ T cells during MCF using immunodetection of ORF73 protein and single-cell RT-PCR approaches. Finally, the role of latency-associated ORF73 was addressed. A lack of ORF73 did not impair initial virus replication in vivo, but it rendered AlHV-1 unable to induce MCF and persist in vivo and conferred protection against a lethal challenge with a WT virus. Together, these findings suggest that a latent infection is essential for MCF induction. Every year, 1.3 million wildebeest migrate across eastern Africa. Almost all of them carry the AlHV-1 virus, which has no effect on them. When wildebeest enter grazing areas, young wildebeest spread the virus through their nasal secretions, infecting cattle. Infected cattle develop MCF, which causes immune cell production to spin out of control, leading to death within a few weeks. MCF is devastating to the Masai people of the region, whose lives depend on livestock farming. Wildebeest in zoos can also spread AlHV-1, causing MCF, for which there is no cure, in some endangered ruminant species. Herpes viruses such as AlHV-1 can replicate in cells that they infect, or they can remain dormant, in a latent state. To determine which method AlHV-1 uses, Dewals and his team infected calves with the virus. All of the calves developed MCF. The researchers then analyzed cellular and viral RNA from the calves’ lymph nodes. They discovered that the virus took the form of episomes, ringed structures that indicate latency, and that infected T-cells contained high levels of the gene ORF73, which codes for a protein needed to maintain latency. Dewals and his colleagues then created a recombinant form of AlHV-1 that lacked ORF73. While this version of the virus was still able to replicate, rabbits infected with it never developed MCF. When the researchers infected these rabbits with normal AlHV-1, the rabbits did not develop the disease, indicating that the knockout virus could be act as a vaccine.According to the team, the virus’ latency creates an evolutionary advantage for both itself and the wildebeest. Because AlHV-1 can persist in wildebeest without causing it any harm, it spreads easily through the entire population, gaining a huge number of hosts. At the same time, the virus kills other species that compete with wildebeest for resources. Transmission of AlHV-1 is highest during wildebeest calving season. Animals weakened by MCF would attract the attention of predators that would otherwise prey on wildebeest calves. © 2013 Phys.org
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: via BBC Developed by the Cambridge-based National Institute of Agricultural Botany, the new strain came about as researchers mixed “ancient” seeds (from seed banks) with those from the modern era. Importantly, the process did not involve genetic modification as such grains have been banned in many countries. Instead, the researchers cross-bred samples and used embryo transfer techniques to bring about a wholly new strain of wheat. Its developers say that thus far, they’ve seen yield increase of up to 30 percent. They add that the new strain is hardier as well—able to stand up to pests and drought better than conventional wheat varieties.The news comes as welcome relief to people in Britain as bad weather has led to less wheat production than normal, giving way to its importation for the first time in over a decade. More importantly, an increased wheat yield has become crucial as the world population continues to grow. Recent estimates suggest that as many as a fifth of all calories consumed by people worldwide, come from wheat. In contrast, scientists have noted that the last 15 years have seen little increase in wheat yields. Some scientists have suggested that wheat yields will have to double over the next half-century to keep ahead of population growth. Put another way, the researchers claim that the world will have to produce more wheat over the next 50 years than has been produced over the past 10,000 years in order to keep ahead of demand.Wheat evolved from goat grasses co-incidentally or not, around the same time as people were beginning to learn to grow their own food, the research team notes, most likely in the Middle East. Since that time, humans have reduced the varieties of wheat that are grown, resulting in an erosion of the plant’s natural diversity. Cross breeding modern strains with much older samples that have been preserved in seed banks will bring back some of that diversity, and in this case, hopefully lead to increased yields.Unfortunately because of governmental regulations, the new wheat strain can’t be grown commercially in Britain for five years. That time interval will give scientists and others time to more thoroughly investigate the new strain to ascertain if the initial findings hold. Citation: Scientists announce development of wheat strain that produces 30% greater yields (2013, May 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-05-scientists-wheat-strain-greater-yields.html No clear evidence that celiac disease increasing because farmers growing higher-gluten wheat (Phys.org) —Researchers in Britain have announced the development of a new strain of wheat that early reports suggest produce 30 percent greater yields than those currently in use. Explore further Credit: Wikipedia. © 2013 Phys.org
Silkworms spinning spider webs As the researchers note, while silk production using silkworms has been quite successful, doing the same to harvest silk from spiders has not, (because of their territorial traits, the complex nature of the silk they make and their cannibalistic tendencies) which is frustrating as the silk they make to spin their webs has so many outstanding qualities. Intrigued by prior research efforts that investigated the possibility of enhancing spider silk by spraying the spiders or feeding them different materials (titanium, zinc, aluminum, lead, etc.) to improve the mechanical, electrical, magnetic or even fluorescent properties of the silk, the researchers wondered what would happen if they sprayed the arachnids, with a graphene or carbon nanotube solution.To find out, they wandered out into the natural environs near their lab and collected a host of cellar spiders and carefully brought them back to their lab. They then proceeded to spray ten of them with a carbon nanotube solution and five with a graphene solution (the particles were 200 to 300 nanometers in width). Sadly, four of the spiders died shortly thereafter, and some produced poor quality webs, but a few of them produced webs that were actually stronger than their normal webs. Testing showed that some of the silk with nanotubes in it was 3.5 times as strong as giant riverine orb spider silk, which is considered the strongest natural spider silk. Also closer examination using Ramen spectroscopy revealed peaks in the silk where the nanotubes were present.The researchers do not know how the carbon in either form wound up in the silk, but have excluded the possibility that it became drenched with it as it exited the spider’s body, the uniformity of the silk was too fine—they think that the spiders pull materials in from their immediate environment and use it as an ingredient in their silk making. Their results suggest it should be possible to produce such silk in small quantities, though it is not clear to what use it would be put. Schematic of the model. Credit: arXiv:1504.06751 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers working in Italy has found that simply spraying a spider with a carbon nanotube solution can cause the spider to spin stronger webs. In their paper they have uploaded to the preprint server arXiv, the team describes their experiments with both graphene and nanotube solutions and what happened when they sprayed it on ordinary spiders. Citation: Spiders sprayed with carbon nanotubes spin superstrong webs (2015, May 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-05-spiders-carbon-nanotubes-superstrong-webs.html More information: Silk reinforced with graphene or carbon nanotubes spun by spiders, arXiv, arXiv:1504.06751 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] http://arxiv.org/abs/1504.06751Here, we report the production of silk incorporating graphene and carbon nanotubes directly by spider spinning, after spraying spiders with the corresponding aqueous dispersions. We observe a significant increment of the mechanical properties with respect to the pristine silk, in terms of fracture strength, Young’s and toughness moduli. We measure a fracture strength up to 5.4 GPa, a Young’s modulus up to 47.8 GPa and a toughness modulus up to 2.1 GPa, or 1567 J/g, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest reported to date, even when compared to the current toughest knotted fibres. This approach could be extended to other animals and plants and could lead to a new class of bionic materials for ultimate applications.via Newscientist © 2015 Phys.org Journal information: arXiv
Explore further More information: Qiancheng Zhao, et al. “Printable ink holograms.” Applied Physics Letters. DOI: 10.1063/1.4928046 © 2015 Phys.org Citation: Printable holograms could make holograms more widespread (2015, August 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-08-printable-holograms-widespread.html (a) A 2D ink-based holographic signature and (b) a 3D holographic coin, both recorded by single nanosecond-laser interference. Credit: Zhao, et al. ©2015 AIP Publishing Journal information: Applied Physics Letters This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—Holograms have a wide variety of applications, from 3D displays to data storage, but the potential applications are currently limited by the complexity and cost of hologram fabrication. In an attempt to simplify the hologram fabrication process, scientists have developed a way to print holograms using a relatively simple and inexpensive laser-printing technique. They hope that the new method will make hologram fabrication more accessible for small-scale and personal use, opening up new types of applications such as integration with smart phones. The researchers, led by Dr. Haider Butt at the University of Birmingham, have published a paper on the printable holograms in a recent issue of Applied Physics Letters.As the researchers explain in their paper, traditional holography fabrication requires specialized knowledge, expensive equipment, and time-consuming recording techniques. Recently, scientists have developed an alternative technique that uses a laser pulse that is split into two beams to create an interference pattern on a surface, producing the characteristic 3D holographic pattern. However, this approach has its own challenges, as it requires precise alignment of the two laser beams and suffers from low light intensity after beam splitting.In the new paper, the researchers have overcome these challenges by developing a single-pulse laser technique that can rapidly print 2D and 3D holograms in seconds on flat or curved surfaces and on a variety of materials. The nanosecond laser can print 1 cm2 of hologram area in just 5 nanoseconds. The researchers explain that the overall speed is not limited by the laser pulse, but by the need to reposition the surface in between lasing, which could potentially be done much faster using robotics.”The technique is slightly different from the conventional methods, which divide a single pulsed beam using beam splitters and then recombine them to produce holograms and nanopatterns,” Butt told Phys.org. “Here we use only a single beam, which is reflected normally from a mirror. The incident and reflected beams interfere, and this interference pattern is used for writing/printing holograms. The technique requires far fewer optical components, it is very simple, reliable, and can be used for ablating a myriad of materials and substrates.”The scientists demonstrated the new technique by printing a holographic 2D signature and a holographic 3D coin. They expect that the method could be especially useful for printing holograms on sensors and “smart” materials that change in response to various stimuli. Printable holograms could also be integrated into smart phones, where, as the researchers explain, they can be used to interpret colorimetric data in pictures. “The holograms printed with this method can be printed using dynamic materials, which are able to respond to any stimuli in their environments,” Butt said. “And they will change their color in response to any environmental changes. Using smart phone cameras and applications, such colorimetric changes can be read, interpreted, and communicated remotely.”Additional applications may include 3D artwork, smart windows, and bio-sensing, among others.”This work can lead to further applications, such as holographic data storage, optical sensors, and printable optical devices,” Butt said. “We and our collaborators are currently pursuing all these research paths and achieving good results.” Multicolor meta-hologram produces light across entire visible spectrum
More information: Min Wang et al. Insight into the growth pattern and bone fusion of basal birds from an Early Cretaceous enantiornithine bird, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2017). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707237114AbstractBird skeletons exhibit remarkable modifications that allow for flight. The most distinguishable features are the fusion of the bones in the hand, feet, and pelvis into composite rigid and bony structures. However, the historical origins of these avian bone fusions remain elusive because of the rarity of transitional fossils and developmental studies on modern birds. Here, we describe an Early Cretaceous bird (120 Mya) that has fully fused alular-major metacarpals and pelvis. We discuss the manus and pelvis fusions across Paravian phylogeny and demonstrate that these features evolved independently across nonavian theropods, Enantiornithes, and Ornithuromorpha. The fusions of these bones are rare in known nonavian theropods and Early Cretaceous birds but are well established among Late Cretaceous and modern birds, revealing a complicated evolution pattern unrecognized previously. We posit that the developments of bone fusion were polymorphic close to the origin of birds, resulting in the varying degrees of fusion in Paraves. However, that development polymorphism appears to be fundamentally restricted along the line to modern birds by the Late Cretaceous, where all birds have a completely fused manus and pelvis. Such changes likely correspond to a refinement of flight capability. Alternatively, the degree of bone fusion in this primitive bird may have been related to modifications in genes or developmental paths. Future studies and fossil discoveries are required to clarify these hypotheses and pinpoint the developmental pathways involving the bone fusions in early avian evolution through to their modern pattern. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In order for birds to evolve from land or tree dwelling animals into creatures that can fly, many changes had to occur—they had to become lighter while maintaining a strong skeleton. One of the ways this occurred was through fusion of bones, such as fingers into wingtips, while many other bones were simply lost to evolution. Until now, the consensus among scientists has been that such changes did not occur until just before land-based dinosaurs became extinct. But now, new evidence by the team in China suggests that the time frame will have to be pushed back approximately 40 million years—the bird now represents the oldest known example of fossilized remains showing bone fusion of its major parts.The skeletal remains they were studying were of a bird, Pterygornis dapingfangensi (an Enantiornithe) that once lived in what is now northeastern China. It represents only the second one of its kind ever found. The researchers report that it was in very good condition, so studying it was easy. They report also that the bird very clearly had fused hands and pelvic girdle. More specifically, the fusion was seen in the ilium, the alular-major metacarpals, the ischium and in the pubis pelvis bones. They note that such fusions have rarely been reported with birds of the Early Cretaceous and that the birds appeared to have followed a growth pattern similar to that of modern birds.The finding fills in some of the blanks that have made it difficult to follow the transition of land animals to birds due to a dearth of fossilized evidence. With the finding of the new specimen, more details about bone fusion and the evolutionary history of flight in animals are emerging. © 2017 Phys.org New species of ancient bird discovered in New Mexico Citation: Fossil find pushes back date of earliest fused bones in birds by 40 million years (2017, October 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-10-fossil-date-earliest-fused-bones.html Pterygornis. Credit: W. Gao (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Beijing). Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Explore further (Phys.org)—A trio of researchers with the Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences has found evidence that pushes back the earliest example of fused bones in birds by approximately 40 million years. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Min Wang, Zhiheng Li and Zhonghe Zhou describe their study of the fossilized remains of a bird dated to approximately 120 million years ago.
Citation: Data from Juno shows Jupiter moons causing footprints in aurorae (2018, July 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-07-juno-jupiter-moons-footprints-aurorae.html A team of researchers with members from Italy, the U.S. and Belgium has discovered that two of Jupiter’s moons cause “footprints” in the planet’s aurorae. In their paper published in the journal Science, the researchers describe what they found and how it helps better understand both the planet and its moons. Journal information: Science All panels are shown in a polar orthographic projection with parallels and meridians overplotted. (A) Footprint of Io on the south pole of Jupiter, as seen on 1 September 2017 at 22:50. The main spot (top-left corner of the image) is followed by a series of regularly spaced secondary spots, which are alternate in displacement above and below the median track (shown in blue). The thin blue arc with dots is the sequence of the predicted Io footprint positions, with dots showing its position every 100 s. Radiances are in mW m−2 sr−1. (B) As in (A), but showing a later image taken at 23:09. The main spot (indicated by a blue arrow) has an oval shape, with an angular offset from the average direction of the tail (median track). (C to E) The Io footprint in the north aurora, observed at 20:43, 20:48 and 20:53 respectively on 1 September 2017. The model is not shown in (C), (D), and (E) as it lies outside of the visible region. The black and white pixels [especially in (D)] are the effect of penetrating radiation affecting the detector. Credit: (c) Science (2018). DOI: 10.1126/science.aat1450 Old data, new tricks: Fresh results from NASA’s Galileo spacecraft 20 years on © 2018 Phys.org On Earth, as the authors note, an aurora is seen as the Northern or Southern lights—dazzling displays of light in the night sky. Jupiter also has aurorae, but they are caused by a different process. Jupiter has a surrounding magnetosphere—plasma carried by the planet’s strong magnetic field. Charged particles from the magnetosphere at times strike the atmosphere of the planet, causing light shows similar to the ones we see on here on Earth. But they have something ours do not—footprints from the planet’s moons. These footprints, the researchers explain, are disturbances in an aurora caused by the presence of a moon—in this case, by Io or Ganymede.The researchers found evidence of the footprints when studying data sent back to Earth by NASA’s Juno space probe. They found that when Io passed close to Jupiter, it caused a double trail of squiggles to appear in a small section of an aurora. The researchers describe it as similar to a Von Kármán vortex—one that streams for hundreds of kilometers. The footprint disappears as the moon moves farther away from the planet.The group also found a footprint created by Ganymede, a spot in an aurora that, upon closer view, turned out to be two spots—the footprint was split in half. The researchers were not able to find a reason for the split, but note that Ganymede is the only moon orbiting Jupiter that has its own magnetic field. This, they suggest, means that the footprint created by the moon represents the interaction of two magnetospheres.The researchers suggest that learning more about the footprints caused by Jupiter’s moons will help to understand how the moons interact with the planet and how strong magnetic forces in a natural environment interact. They also note that neither footprint was in the location that had been predicted, which indicates that models built to describe such events will need to be adjusted. Explore further More information: A. Mura et al. Juno observations of spot structures and a split tail in Io-induced aurorae on Jupiter, Science (2018). DOI: 10.1126/science.aat1450AbstractJupiter’s aurorae are produced in its upper atmosphere when incoming high-energy electrons precipitate along the planet’s magnetic field lines. A northern and a southern main auroral oval are visible, surrounded by small emission features associated with the Galilean moons. We present infrared observations, obtained with the Juno spacecraft, showing that in the case of Io, this emission exhibits a swirling pattern that is similar in appearance to a von Kármán vortex street. Well downstream of the main auroral spots the extended tail is split in two. Both of Ganymede’s footprints also appear as a pair of emission features, which may provide a remote measure of Ganymede’s magnetosphere. These features suggest that magnetohydrodynamic interaction between Jupiter and its moon is more complex than previously anticipated. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Organised by Films andTheatre Society, the two plays gearing up to put some impressive shows are Arjun Ka Beta and Draupadi.The play Arjun Ka Beta is a poetic rendition of a conversation between king Yudhisthira and the great warrior Bheeshama (Son of Ganga). It is a word-to-word description of the bravado of great Abhimanyu given to Bheeshma by Yudhishtira who also shares his inability to face Arjun who would soon be coming back from the battlefield and ask for his son. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’This one hour 20 minutes Hindi play subtly shows the various philosophies of a ‘chakravyuh’ which hold good in the lives of all of us.The next in line is Draupadi which takes excerpts from the story of Draupadi as known to everybody and adds to it some imaginative sequences to bring out the real essence of association between Draupadi and today’s women. This juxtaposing makes this work fit to be called an imaginative re-telling of certain chapters from Draupadi’s life. Head over for an interesting history lesson this weekend.WHEN: 21 December and 22 DecemberTIMINGS: 6.30 onwards (Both days)WHERE: LTG, Mandi house
Kolkata: The Special Director of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Rakesh Asthana, will hold a meeting with investigating officers of different cases, including those of Saradha chit fund scam and Narada sting operation, in Kolkata on Wednesday. There will also be discussion on the Rose Valley scam and other cases that the central investigating agency is probing. Sources said that this is the first time when such a meeting is going to be held in the city. On Wednesday, Asthana will be holding the meeting in CBI’s office at Nizam Palace. Asthana will discuss all the matters of all the cases with their Investigating Officers (IOs). It may be mentioned that there were several issues in connection with cases, including that of Narada. It may be mentioned that Asthana will reach Kolkata on Tuesday and he will be holding the meeting on Wednesday. On Monday, he was in Bhubaneswar and held a meeting with officers there. The meeting was held in connection with 30 chit fund cases that took place in Odisha. It may be mentioned that authorities of Apple have stated that they will not be providing the details which CBI had sought in connection with Mathew Samuel, former Narada CEO’s iPhone.
Kolkata: Consul General of the People’s Republic of China in Kolkata Ma Zhanwu said that it was technicalproblems on Chinese side that had resulted in the cancellation of Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee’s trip to China in June. He added that the Chinese Consulate is working on a new date and expressed his optimism that in the coming months, Banerjee should be visiting China. On being questioned about Mamata Banerjee’s chances of visiting China again, Zhanwu, on the sidelines of a Press conference in the city, said: “It was technical problems on the Chinese part. The honourable Chief Minister’s meeting with our provincial leaders could not be fixed, which resulted in the cancellation of her trip. We are working on the new dates and we are hopeful that in the coming months or the beginning of next year, her visit to China will be a reality.” Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeA senior official of the Consulate said that a delegation had held a meeting with the Chief Minister’s office at Nabanna in this regard last month. It may be mentioned that Banerjee was scheduled to leave for China on June 22 but cancelled her trip barely hours before her flight to Beijing was scheduled to depart. The Chief Minister was supposed to head a delegation to China, following recommendations of the Union minister of External Affairs, Sushma Swaraj, under the Exchange Programme of the government of India with the International Department of the Communist Party of China. According to the state government, the Chief Minister’s cancellation of the tour was prompted by the inability of the Chinese side to confirm political meetings at an appropriate level as informed by the Indian Ambassador in China. The matter was immediately informed to the Union minister of External Affairs as her tour was under the Exchange Programme of the Union government.
Since it’s the festive season, girls are going mad about how to get dressed up. Of course, there is no harm in being a little selective; after all who does not want to stand out from the crowd. But at the same time, it is essential to make a statement that doesn’t break the bank. Experts from various fields have come up to give you certain tips on how to balance your look this Diwali. Archana Dhankar, stylist and image consultant, Fashionforroyals.com, thinks that a dress would get too simple and a lehenga or sharara would get too jazzy. Hence, she has given a few fashion and styling tips to look your best: Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThis Diwali go traditional with a tussar silk saree for an elegant look. Ditch the conventional old blouse and pair it with an off-shoulder crop top to go vogue this season. Try contrasting shades and make an attempt to incorporate the colours of the festival in your outfit. Pleat the pallu of your saree to show-off the statement sleeves of your off-shoulder crop top.For footwear, jootis or kholapuris will work best. It’s better to stay comfortable to be able to enjoy the raas-garba and other get-togethers. Comfortable in its feel, it’s just the footwear for your insanely long party nights. Just pair this right with any of your festive outfits. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveTry out palazzo or trouser pants for a cocktail party look. It can be paired with different key pieces in your wardrobe. Mix it up a little by going for a modern take on the ethnic wear and go for embroidered bottoms with a short kurti.Set an ideal look for a perfect Indo-western outfit with a unique embellished jumpsuit. Wear one with sequin-work or ethnic embroidery and accessorize them with jhumka earrings, ethnic clutches or metal bangles.Jewellery Designer Pooja Nigam, who owns the brand with the same name, recommends to go with the traditional Indian jewellery this time. “Nothing beats the Indian look around Diwali. A nice saree/suit with Jadau jewellery is the best combination to get into the festive mood. But if you are experimental, then you can definitely try a fusion. Contemporary pieces with Indian attires won’t be a bad choice either.”Talking about the ongoing trends this season, she says, “It’s best to keep it elegant with the right amount of jewellery. Ongoing trend in jewellery is of chokars. You can opt for the sleek and delicate ones. If you’re wearing a heavy neckpiece then keep the earrings light or vice versa. Don’t keep both the things heavy.
What could be a better visual treat than witnessing Japan through the eyes of an Indian artist? Madhu Jain, a renowned name in the field of art, has given a tangible form to her memories of Japan. A solo painting exhibition by her, titled ‘Japan As I See It’, will be inaugurated on February 10 at The Japan Foundation. The story dates back to 1994 when Madhu went to Japan and was amazed to see the incredible texture and brilliance of ‘Nihon-ga’ and ‘Sumi-e paintings’. “My love for nature found a strong attraction to these eco-friendly mediums and I set my heart to study and research it. I interacted with artists and teachers in Japan and studied these techniques in Tokyo,” Madhu mentioned. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfOn her return to India, she adapted these art techniques to portray her own contemporary style and expression. Her painting are created in mediums such as ink, powdered rock mineral pigments, layered upon paper, using glue and water with special Japanese brushes.Speaking of her learning process, Jain added, “After much practice, a few confident bold strokes and use of varying tones of ink, I have had the thrill to achieve the hollow of the bamboo, the harshness of the tree bark, the rounding of grapes, the turns and twists of orchid grass, fine needles of the pine, or a complete bird.” The exhibition will be open for public from February 12 – 23, 2018.
Imagine you are attending a soirée at a local château. Now imagine that into the room walks a lion, only it is not a real lion; it is animatronic. Now imagine that it is the early 16th century. This would be surprising to anyone, but perhaps less so if you were in the company of a certain Leonardo da Vinci. Born in Italy as Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci in 1452, da Vinci’s name has become synonymous with invention, engineering, architecture, science, mathematics, astronomy, cartography, and, of course, art.The painter of the Mona Lisa, da Vinci is known to have created numerous other masterpieces throughout his 67 years, including The Virgin and Child with St. Anne in 1510, The Virgin on the Rocks in 1486, and The Last Supper in the 1490s.Leonardo Da Vinci statue, by Luigi Pampaloni, 1839Considered to be a “universal genius”, the scope of da Vinci’s interests were unprecedented. According to art historian Helen Gardner, whose 1926 book Art Through the Ages is still the standard text for American art history classes, da Vinci’s “mind and personality [were] superhuman, while the man himself mysterious and remote.”Although known primarily as a painter, da Vinci’s mind was equally scientific. His drawing of The Vitruvian Man is thought of as a cultural icon and has been reproduced a myriad of times on everything from tote bags and postcards to the Euro.Vitruvian ManDa Vinci dissected 30 cadavers in his lifetime by his own count, creating intricate and highly detailed drawings of both animal and human anatomy. While he never considered himself a medical professional and did not teach anatomy or publish his findings, his drawings have served as the basic principles of modern scientific illustration. But it was his ingenuity with regards to technology that really set him apart from his contemporaries.In his life, da Vinci conceptualized a wide variety of machines and mechanisms, many of which we take completely for granted today. In addition to a type of helicopter, da Vinci drew up plans for a winged flying machine, a double-hulled ship, solar power, an armoured fighting vehicle that resembles an early tank, an anemometer, which measures wind speed, parachutes, scuba gear, a car, a revolving bridge, and a robotic lion.Weapon design by Leonardo Da VinciIn 1517, about a year after he took up residence at Clos Lucé, da Vinci was commissioned to create an automaton for the king, François I. Da Vinci moved to Amboise in 1516 at the request of the king, to be a court painter, architect (he is believed to have contributed significantly to the design of François’ estate at Chambord) philosopher and engineer. Paid 700 gold crowns a year and given the château as his home, he was ordered to “think, work, and dream.”Da Vinci appears to have created three different animatronic lions in his lifetime. The first was in 1509, which was designed for the grand entry of Louis XII into Milan. While it could not walk, it could rear on its hind legs to present a lily – a symbol of France.Château du Clos Lucé. Photo by Nadègevillain CC BY-SA 3.0The second lion, created in 1515, could walk and move its head and was presented to François I when he visited Lyon. When the king tapped the lion with his sword, a compartment opened to reveal a lily.The king was so impressed by this that he invited da Vinci to his court. The artist agreed, arriving by mule and bringing with him many of his paintings, including one of a woman by the name of Lisa Gherardini – the Mona Lisa. It has remained in France ever since.Exhibitions of drawings by Leonardo in the garden. Photo by Als33120 CC BY-SA 4.0Da Vinci’s original lion has long since been lost to time, and no drawings or plans exist, despite the plethora of notebooks that da Vinci left behind. Carlo Pedretti, a da Vinci scholar, wrote: “The irony of the whole thing is that there is not a single hint in Leonardo’s manuscripts of this (which may be his) greatest technological invention… Imagine having a lion walk. This is top technology!”Related Video:However, in 2009, another mechanically-inclined individual named Renato Boaretto used a description of the third lion as inspiration and created his own version: “My big problem was to try to get inside Leonardo’s mind and to try to think as he might have thought, based on the technology which existed or that he envisaged in his sketches for other machines.”Old man with ivy wreath and lion’s head, by Leonardo da Vinci, c.1505Like da Vinci, Boaretto had been commissioned by another François — François Saint-Bris, president of the Château Clos Lucé and surrounding park. Saint-Bris had plans to turn the park into a cultural area, devoted to both da Vinci as well as his renaissance contemporaries such as Shakespeare and Machiavelli.But building the lion was not a simple task. According to Boaretto, “Leonardo’s big problem was to give such a heavy machine – 50 or 60 kilos – enough power in one motor in a limited space to walk forward and to move its head and tail.” All of this had to be done using technology that would have been contemporary to da Vinci.Clos Lucé Lion. Photo by Als33120 CC BY SA 4.0In order to solve this problem, Boaretto used a complex entanglement of pulleys, chains, wheels, gears, axels, and pendulums. The lion can be wound up using a crank, or key, and the handyman of the Clos Lucé is often called upon to turn the crank whenever visitors to the château want to see the lion move.Like the original, it can walk, shuffling forward about 10 steps, as well as move its tail, open its mouth, and rotate its head. And, true to the design of its predecessor, it also has a secret compartment for a fleur-de-lis.Portrait of Leonardo da Vinci, by Francesco Melzi, red chalk on paper, c.1515-18In addition to the new lion, four original sketches by da Vinci were put on display at the Clos Lucé as part of the permanent exhibition Leonardo da Vinci and France. It was the first time the sketches, which were housed in the Gallerie dell’Accademia in Venice, were returned to the place where they were created.Read another story from us: The Futuristic Weapon Designs of Leonardo Da VinciBoaretto’s lion, as well as numerous other replicas of da Vinci’s creations, can be seen today at the Château Clos Lucé, in Amboise, France. Da Vinci lived here for the last three years of his life and died in his bedroom in 1519. The chateau has been restored as a museum devoted to this true Renaissance man, his life and his incredible talents.Correction: In the original version of the article we misstated his year of birth of as 1542. The correct year is 1452. We made the correction on 4/8/2019.
By Matthew DunnChad Moir, the founder of DopaFit.Region – A thumping cadence slowly develops as members of the DopaFit™ boxing class in West Boylston land punches against the boxing bags stationed throughout the room. Participants of this class are not training to learn self-defense, or for the sole purpose of a cardiovascular work-out. Rather, they are already engaged in a fight against Parkinson’s disease, and hope to delay or reduce the impacts of the disease with each deliberate punch of the bag.Chad Moir, the founder of DopaFit, knows first-hand the impacts Parkinson’s disease can have not only on those who suffer from it, but on their family and loved ones as well.Tim MacMillan at a Dopafit class.“My mother, Cindy, is the inspiration behind DopaFit. She passed away fromcomplications due to her Parkinson’s disease at the young age of 55,” he said.During that difficult time, Moir used exercise to help him cope with the loss of his mother. Eventually, he decided he would take revenge on Parkinson’s disease, turning his frustration and anger into a viable Parkinson’s disease movement program to help manage and ease the symptoms of those affected.“After doing extensive research I realized that exercise is the only proven way to slow down the progression of Parkinson’s disease,” Moir said, adding that “For most people living with Parkinson’s disease medication is necessary to stay mobile and to be able to continue leading an active life.“I used my knowledge as an exercise specialist to create Dopafit, a Parkinson’s disease movement program. Our program has helped many people with PD start lessen the amount of medication they take and are doing things they have not been able to do it years.”Moir’s West Boylston DopaFit class has helped local participant Tim MacMillan manage his Parkinson’s symptoms on a daily basis.MacMillan is a two-year veteran of the class and is also a strong advocate of its effectiveness.“I got started in DopaFit Boxing back in May of 2017 as coach Chad Moir came to one of my APDA (American Parkinson Disease Association) monthly support groups”, MacMillan said when describing how he got his start in the DopaFit boxing program.“He [Chad] needed a volunteer from the audience to get up and box with him. When I got up to box he actually told me that I was spot-on and wanted me as his first client when he opened up his studio in West Boylston. I have been going to all his classes faithfully which I find greatly beneficial,” MacMillan added.Parkinson’s is a progressive neurological disease that impacts thousands of lives daily, slowly robbing those affected of their motor function, balance, and reflexes– but members of the DopaFit class have found a way to fight back.According to MacMillan, “[The] biggest impact on me fighting Parkinson ’s disease is definitely DopaFit boxing, which I find helps out tremendously as I may go a couple to a few days with little [few] tremors.”DopaFit is a boxing class based on the previously established Rock Steady Boxing method, an exercise regimen specifically designed help reduce, delay, or mitigate some of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Focusing on exercises utilizing motor skills, strength, and balance, DopaFit aims to strengthen and preserve many of the same attributes Parkinson’s tries to steal.According to Moir, “A phase II clinical trial, called the Study in Parkinson Disease of Exercise (SPARX), was recently conducted by researchers from Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, IL, and the University of Colorado in Denver. Their findings suggest that high-intensity physical exercise is beneficial for people with early stage Parkinson’s disease, as it may delay the progression of symptoms related to motor abilities.”MacMillian can see these benefits in his daily life. With no shortage of enthusiasm, he describes a moment in time where his hard work and commitment at DopaFit was apparent to his wife as well.“One time when my wife and I were holding hands she said, ‘Hold my hand again, I want to see something’. I held her hand again and she said, “Oh my God I don’t really feel any tremors, and you really don’t seem to be shaking as much’. I had been to DopaFit boxing that morning,” he recalled.Not only does DopaFit Boxing give each participant the power to fight back against their disease, but it also serves as a support group, and encourages each individual to continue their fight alongside one another.As Moir points out, “If you have Parkinson’s disease and you want to delay the progression of your symptoms, you should exercise two-three times a week with your heart rate between 80 to 85 percent maximum. It is that simple.”Tim MacMillan, and many others, slide their hands inside boxing gloves and continue to try to knock-out a disease that has taken so much from so many. With new advances in therapy and programs like DopaFit Boxing, it is clear the fight is nowhere near over.For more information on the DopaFit program visit dopafit.com.Photos/submitted
The second fight of the day came two plays later between tight end Jeremy Sprinkle and linebacker Montae Nicholson. If any of the games this year come down to fighting, Washington should be in good shape,FIGHT! Jeremy Sprinkle is blocking Monte Nicholson on a run play. Nicholson tries to pull away but Sprinkle holds on. Nicholson gets mad and throws him to the ground. As they stand back up, Sprinkle double leg takedown on Nicholson #Redskins pic.twitter.com/xf9oNv00vp— Paul Conner (@P_ConnerJr) July 30, 2019 Advertisement NFL training camps are in full swing, which – like every year – means hot tempers and training camp fights. The Redskins are currently lapping the league in the fight department after two melee’s broke out in the course of three plays during yesterday’s drill’s.The first involved offensive lineman Tyler Catalina and defensive lineman JoJo Wicker, who went at it after going at each other for one too many reps in the murderous summer heat. Catalina throws Wicker to the ground and ultimately gets laid out by nose tackle Tim Settle. Catalina was cut later in the afternoon, but it was reportedly not because of the fight. Ok sure.FIRST FIGHT! JoJo Wicker gets under Tyler Catalina’s pads & drives him. Tyler snaps him down. JoJo gets up and pushes him & they exchange punches. Settle comes out of nowhere & floors Catalina. Holcomb/JHC try to help him up but Flanagan pushes them cause they play defense. pic.twitter.com/uLEgKXXQ7d— Paul Conner (@P_ConnerJr) July 30, 2019
Listen Now How Success Happens Hear from Polar Explorers, ultra marathoners, authors, artists and a range of other unique personalities to better understand the traits that make excellence possible. January 28, 2016 Mark Cuban is a feisty one. He doesn’t take kindly to people bashing Shark Tank.Y Combinator co-founder and former president Paul Graham found out in a very public, ugly way yesterday. The billionaire (Cuban) and the millionaire (Graham) knocked horns on the little blue bird last night.Graham fired the first shot, warning startups not to waste their time appearing on Shark Tank.Startups: Instead of appearing on Shark Tank, spend that energy fixing whatever makes your product so unappealing you think you need to.— Paul Graham (@paulg) January 28, 2016Former Googler and Shark Tank guest star Chris Sacca, fought back first with a splash of sarcasm.@paulg Yeah, because a free 10-minute pitch to 7 million Americans is something every startup should turn down.— Chris Sacca (@sacca) January 28, 2016Sacca’s sneer didn’t sit well with Graham, who’s long written plenty about how hard founders like, for example, Google co-founder Larry Page, have it.@sacca Nothing is less free for a startup than something that costs the attention of the founders.— Paul Graham (@paulg) January 28, 2016Next Graham fired off a link to a Wall Street Journal story featuring fellow Y Combinator co-founder Jessica Livingston’s unorthodox advice to early-stage startups. Nutshell: Don’t spend an iota of energy marketing an “initially mediocre product.” Wait until it’s perfect. Related: Billionaire Mark Cuban on Raising Kids: ‘I Don’t Want Them to Be Entitled Jerks’@sacca Building the best product is how most startups win, not by marketing. https://t.co/Q2B8CjfCDc— Paul Graham (@paulg) January 28, 2016Sacca weighed in with another snarky two cents.@paulg Agreed. Nothing is more distracting than traffic, users, installs, job applicants, and revenue.— Chris Sacca (@sacca) January 28, 2016Then Cuban stepped in the ring and the gloves really flew off. So what if he was a few hours late?@paulg you mean like the sense of entitlement and arrogance they get when they become part of a YC class ? It’s hard to wash it out— Mark Cuban (@mcuban) January 28, 2016Startups, accelerators and arrogance, naw, those never go together, especially not up in Mountain View, Calif., where Y Combinator is headquartered. Cuban, known to be bit of a hothead at times, spit more fuel on the fire, implying that Y Combinator is a crusty has-been, that its heyday as a relevant accelerator is long gone. We’re surprised the razor-tongued Pittsburgh native didn’t use any of his usual salty language.@paulg the real question is why does a startup become part of YC any more ? The good old days of YC are just that— Mark Cuban (@mcuban) January 28, 2016 Ouch. Maybe Cuban’s bite was enough to shut Graham up about Shark Tank, at least for now. Apparently immune to shark bait, he still hasn’t yet responded to Cuban or Sacca. We’re guessing he’s saving his energy for one of his preachy trademark essays. Related: Mark Cuban: There’s No Playing Nice With Your Competition 3 min read
Cleaning Disinfection Get comprehensive research providing detailed regional analysis and growth outlook of the Global Cleaning Disinfection Market in a latest research report added by Big Market Research.The report mainly studies the size, recent trends and development status of the Cleaning Disinfection market, as well as investment opportunities, government policy, market dynamics (drivers, restraints, opportunities), supply chain and competitive landscape. Technological innovation and advancement will further optimize the performance of the product, making it more widely used in downstream applications. Moreover, Porter’s Five Forces Analysis (potential entrants, suppliers, substitutes, buyers, industry competitors) provides crucial information for knowing the Cleaning Disinfection market.Download Sample Copy of this Report @ https://www.bigmarketresearch.com/request-sample/3160360?utm_source=HTN&utm_medium=AnilThe report begins with a brief introduction and market overview, in which the Cleaning Disinfection industry is first defined before estimating its market scope and size. Next, the report elaborates on the market scope and market size estimation. This is followed by an overview of the market segmentations such as type, application, and region. The drivers, limitations, and opportunities are listed for the Cleaning Disinfection industry, followed by industry news and policies.The report performs an industry chain analysis, focusing on upstream raw material suppliers and major downstream buyers. The data is highlighted through the use of tables and figures, which also include manufacturing cost structure and market channel analysis. Major players involved in the Cleaning Disinfection industry are also delineated, along with their market share and product types.The report segments the global Cleaning Disinfection market based on factors such as type, application, and region. For the historic period, extensive insights on value, market share, production, growth rate, and price analysis for each sub-segment is offered by the report. Additionally, the report also delves into regional production, consumption, export, and import for the historic period. The regions analyzed in the research include North America, Europe, China, Japan, Middle East & Africa, India, and South America. Finally, the current market status and SWOT analysis for each region are elaborated, which would assist market players to gain a competitive edge by determining the dominant segments.The research extensively analyses the key market players involved in the global Cleaning Disinfection industry. With the help of tables and figures, valuable insights on production, value, price, and gross margin of each player are offered.Avail Discount on Report @ https://www.bigmarketresearch.com/request-for-discount/3160360?utm_source=HTN&utm_medium=AnilTable of content:Chapter 1 provides an overview of Cleaning Disinfection market, containing global revenue, global production, sales, and CAGR. The forecast and analysis of Cleaning Disinfection market by type, application, and region are also presented in this chapter.Chapter 2 is about the market landscape and major players. It provides competitive situation and market concentration status along with the basic information of these players.Chapter 3 provides a full-scale analysis of major players in Cleaning Disinfection industry. The basic information, as well as the profiles, applications and specifications of products market performance along with Business Overview are offered.Chapter 4 gives a worldwide view of Cleaning Disinfection market. It includes production, market share revenue, price, and the growth rate by type.Chapter 5 focuses on the application of Cleaning Disinfection, by analyzing the consumption and its growth rate of each application.Chapter 6 is about production, consumption, export, and import of Cleaning Disinfection in each region.Chapter 7 pays attention to the production, revenue, price and gross margin of Cleaning Disinfection in markets of different regions. The analysis on production, revenue, price and gross margin of the global market is covered in this part.Chapter 8 concentrates on manufacturing analysis, including key raw material analysis, cost structure analysis and process analysis, making up a comprehensive analysis of manufacturing cost.Chapter 9 introduces the industrial chain of Cleaning Disinfection. Industrial chain analysis, raw material sources and downstream buyers are analyzed in this chapter.Chapter 10 provides clear insights into market dynamics.Chapter 11 prospects the whole Cleaning Disinfection market, including the global production and revenue forecast, regional forecast. It also foresees the Cleaning Disinfection market by type and application.Chapter 12 concludes the research findings and refines all the highlights of the study.Chapter 13 introduces the research methodology and sources of research data for your understanding.Buy Now @ https://www.bigmarketresearch.com/checkout/sales/473?utm_source=HTN&utm_medium=AnilAbout Us:Big Market Research has a range of research reports from various publishers across the world. Our database of reports of various market categories and sub-categories would help to find the exact report you may be looking for.We are instrumental in providing quantitative and qualitative insights on your area of interest by bringing reports from various publishers at one place to save your time and money. 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This is uTorrent’s new Altruistic Mode by Martin Brinkmann on September 28, 2016 in Internet – 9 commentsBitTorrent Inc has just added a new feature to the popular BitTorrent client uTorrent called Altruistic Mode that may throttle downloads in order to keep a 2:1 ratio at all times.The main idea behind Altruistic Mode is to make sure you give back more than you take from the community of peers.This is probably most interesting in situations where you want to keep a good ratio on a tracker, and where you want to support a project by giving it part of your upload bandwidth.The intended use of Altruistic Mode is to help out a swarm. This can help other peers download faster or ensure a peer has a good sharing ratio. This is especially helpful in conditions where there are already plenty of seeds, which often happens after a torrent has been available for a while.One thing that needs to be clear is that downloads may never complete when in that mode. If your ratio drops below 2:1, downloads stop until uploads push it back to that level. If you cannot upload to anyone, then you won’t download either. This can happen if a torrent has only seeders but no leechers.You could however disable the mode for a torrent in that case to complete the download.Note: The feature is available in uTorrent 3.4.9 and BitTorrent 7.9.9.uTorrent’s Altruistic ModeAltrustic Mode is not enabled by default. That’s a good decision as it is likely not that useful to the majority of uTorrent users.First thing you need to do is enable the mode in the preferences.Select Options > Preferences or use the shortcut Ctrl-P to open the Preferences Window in uTorrent.Switch to BitTorrent in the sidebar.Check the “Enable Altruistic Mode” box on the page that opens.This enables the mode in uTorrent but does not configure any existing torrents to make use of it. The option to enable the mode becomes available in “add new torrent” dialogs.You find the option to enable Altruistic Mode there. You may also enable the mode for any torrent that is already in the program’s queue.Simply right-click on any torrent file and select properties from the menu to get started. You find the option to enable the mode at the bottom of the window that opens.Closing WordsAltruistic Mode keeps the ratio at about 2:1 by uploading two pieces of the torrent for every piece that gets downloaded by the client. The mode ensures that your ratio cannot drop below that for that torrent which is probably most appealing for users on private trackers.While you could argue that setting up a high upload bandwidth and a low download bandwidth might provide the same result, this is not necessarily the case as torrents will still be downloaded even if no uploads occur.Now You: What’s your take on Altruistic Mode?SummaryArticle NameThis is uTorrent’s new Altruistic ModeDescriptionBitTorrent Inc has just added a new feature to the popular BitTorrent client uTorrent called Altruistic Mode that may throttle downloads in order to keep a 2:1 ratio at all times.Author Martin BrinkmannPublisher Ghacks Technology NewsLogo Advertisement