Substorm-induced energetic electron precipitation: Impact on atmospheric chemistry

first_imgMagnetospheric substorms drive energetic electron precipitation into the Earth’s atmosphere. We use the output from a substorm model to describe electron precipitation forcing of the atmosphere during an active substorm period in April–May 2007. We provide the first estimate of substorm impact on the neutral composition of the polar middle atmosphere. Model simulations show that the enhanced ionization from a series of substorms leads to an estimated ozone loss of 5–50% in the mesospheric column depending on season. This is similar in scale to small to medium solar proton events (SPEs). This effect on polar ozone balance is potentially more important on long time scales (months to years) than the impulsive but sporadic (few SPE/year versus three to four substorms/day) effect of SPEs. Our results suggest that substorms should be considered an important source of energetic particle precipitation into the atmosphere and included in high-top chemistry-climate modelslast_img read more

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BLM Wyoming to offer 105 parcels in March 2020 oil and gas lease sale

first_img Image: BLM Wyoming raised nearly $117m through oil and gas lease sales last year. Photo: courtesy of C Morrison from Pixabay. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Wyoming is planning to offer 105 oil and gas lease parcels totalling about 118,219 acres during the March 2020 quarterly lease sale for exploration and production.The BLM, in coordination with the State of Wyoming, said it deferring four whole parcels and a portion of one other as they intersect state-designated migration corridors.The agency said in a statement: “The BLM reviewed all proposed parcels to ensure leasing them conforms to the 2015 Approved Sage-Grouse Resource Management Plan Amendments for the Rocky Mountain Region, which are currently in effect due to the preliminary injunction of the BLM’s 2019 sage-grouse plan amendments by the U.S. District Court of Idaho.”The latest move triggers the start of a 30-day public comment period on the proposed lease sale, with scheduled close on 13 December 2019.BLM to announce final decision upon reviewing commentsFollowing the review of the comments received during the period, the BLM will make a final decision for the proposed offer.Last year, BLM Wyoming raised nearly $117m through oil and gas lease sales with nearly half the revenue from each lease sale directed to the State of Wyoming.Additionally, revenues from production of onshore oil and gas on federal lands will used to directly fund the US Treasury and state budgets.In October 2019, the US DOI has announced the lease sale of approximately 78 million acres in federal waters of the Gulf of Mexico’s Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), for oil and gas exploration and development.Scheduled to take place in March 2020, the proposed region-wide lease, named Lease Sale 254, will include approximately 14,585 unleased blocks.The lease sale, however, excludes blocks that are subject to the Congressional moratorium established by the Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act of 2006; blocks adjacent to or beyond the US Exclusive Economic Zone; and blocks within the current boundaries of the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary. Last year, BLM Wyoming raised nearly $117m through oil and gas lease saleslast_img read more

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Rightmove may endorse ‘modern method’ auctions but they lack transparency, says critic

first_imgHome » News » Auctions news » Rightmove may endorse ‘modern method’ auctions but they lack transparency, says critic previous nextAuctions newsRightmove may endorse ‘modern method’ auctions but they lack transparency, says criticRichard Copus wonders if buyers and sellers understand the downsides of MMoA or that each referral earns agents significant fees.Nigel Lewis12th March 20210659 Views Richard Copus, a leading traditional auctioneer and critic of the ‘modern method’ has publicly put the boot into this increasingly popular way of selling properties.Copus has published a blog via the website of HomeOwners Alliance that warns agents to be careful that ‘modern method of auctions’ (MMoAs) are the best option for a vendor.Conditional or MMoA auctions have become popular with vendors because they offer ‘fee-free’ home moving while estate agents are attracted by the generous commissions on offer.They are also being heavily marketed at the moment. Leading supplier Iamsold last month struck deals with both Zoopla and Rightmove to market MMoA to their agents.It’s easy to see why they are taking off. Reservation fees paid by successfully bidders are often a minimum of £6,000 and agents can be given up to 50% of this in commission.“Under the Property Ombudsman Code of Conduct, before taking on a property agents have a duty to advise their clients of the best method of sale and the pitfalls of the one that they recommend,” says Copus (pictured, left).“Some of the houses on the market through the MMOA are ordinary, mortgageable homes where the homeowner has been attracted to sell this way because there is no fee payable.“Selling these properties by any form of auction is not normally advisable, unless the seller needs a very quick sale and is not too worried about the price they achieve, and there is a duty to spell this out to the seller at the outset.”Adam Horton of hybrid estate agency Hortons (pictured), says he worries that too many agents market MMoA both as a zero-percent way to sell and also as a way to increase buyer competition and reduce fall-through rates, but don’t mention that the ‘auction deposit’ is a non-refundable fee.“My concern is that it’s pitched to agents as a way to increase fees and get deals through, but I’m not convinced vendors realise how the auction pricing works or that they are comprising final sale price in return for speed and certainty,” says Horton.Horton also claims that buyers who are already £6,000 down before an auction even starts are less likely to bid in the same way as they would at a traditional auction.Iamsold: Clear, robust and transparentJamie Cooke, CEO of Iamsold, says: “MMoA has many benefits for buyers and sellers when it’s the right method of sale for their circumstances – mainly speed and security.“To support this we developed and released a Best Practice Guide for MMoA in 2019, to help Estate Agents and suppliers alike adhere to industry best practice standards in line with a code of conduct for MMoA transactions.“We believe that all providers of MMoA should adhere to clear, robust and transparent guidelines so consumers are informed about what MMoA entails and are given a fair and consistent service.“This year we will be building on our already comprehensive processes and support assets, conducting additional audits as well as enhancing our training on MMoA to our new and existing Partner Agents.“Best practice is also front and centre in our new innovations and we are introducing functionality in our movebutler platform, due for release in spring, to help agents offer the right advice suited to their vendors’ circumstances, ensuring they understand the advantages and disadvantages of all methods of sale available to them. We’ll always be committed to driving best practice and transparency in this space.”Read the full blog by Copus.Richard Copus adam horton Hortons Property Ombudsman Code of Conduct iamsold HomeOwners Alliance modern methods of auction March 12, 2021Nigel LewisWhat’s your opinion? Cancel replyYou must be logged in to post a comment.Please note: This is a site for professional discussion. Comments will carry your full name and company.This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.Related articles BREAKING: Evictions paperwork must now include ‘breathing space’ scheme details30th April 2021 City dwellers most satisfied with where they live30th April 2021 Hong Kong remains most expensive city to rent with London in 4th place30th April 2021last_img read more

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“READERS FORUM” FOR SEPTEMBER 15, 2019

first_imgFacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmailShare,We hope that today’s “READERS FORUM” will provoke honest and open dialogue concerning issues that we, as responsible citizens of this community, need to address in a rational and responsible way.WHAT’S ON YOUR MIND TODAY? Todays “Readers Poll’ question is: Do you feel that the new owners of Ellis Park are going to invest the money to make this Historic race track upscale and customer friendly?If you would like to advertise in the CCO please contact us at City-County [email protected]: City-County Observer Comment Policy. Be kind to people. Personal attacks or harassment will not be tolerated and shall be removed from our site.We understand that sometimes people don’t always agree and discussions may become a little heated.  The use of offensive language and insults against commenters shall not be tolerated and will be removed from our site.Any comments posted in this column do not represent the views or opinions of the City-County Observer, our media partners or advertise. We hope that today’s “READERS FORUM” will provoke honest and open dialogue concerning issues that we, as responsible citizens of this community, need to address in a rational and responsible way.WHAT’S ON YOUR MIND TODAY?center_img Todays “Readers Poll’ question is: Do you feel that the new owners of Ellis Park are going to invest the money to make this Historic race track upscale and customer friendly?If you would like to advertise in the CCO please contact us at City-County Obse[email protected]: City-County Observer Comment Policy. Be kind to people. Personal attacks or harassment will not be tolerated and shall be removed from our site.We understand that sometimes people don’t always agree and discussions may become a little heated.  The use of offensive language and insults against commenters shall not be tolerated and will be removed from our site.Any comments posted in this column do not represent the views or opinions of the City-County Observer, our media partners or advertise.last_img read more

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News story: Collision between a freight train and a utility vehicle in Dollands Moor yard

first_imgThis item has moved to the National Archives as RAIB has published its report describing this accident. See Report 05/2019.,At about 03:39 hrs on Tuesday 4 September 2018, a freight train travelling towards the Channel Tunnel struck a utility vehicle on a level crossing at the west end of Dollands Moor yard near Folkestone. The train was due to stop in the yard for an inspection and to change locomotive before entering the tunnel.The train was travelling at 22 mph (35 km/h) and braking, when it struck the stationary utility vehicle. This was driven by a shunter who had been sent to undertake a routine check of the incoming train. The shunter jumped or was thrown from the vehicle and was seriously injured. The train came to a halt after travelling about 100 metres, and petrol from the utility vehicle ignited causing a fire. The train driver had already left the train and was not injured, but the locomotive cab was extensively damaged.Our investigation will seek to identify the sequence of events which led to the accident and will consider: Our investigation is independent of any investigation by the railway industry, the Office of Rail and Road, or the British Transport Police.We will publish our findings, including any safety recommendations, at the conclusion of our investigation; these will be available on our RAIB website.You can subscribe to automated emails notifying you when we publish our reports. the actions of those involved factors affecting the shunter’s awareness of his location and his view of the approaching train the visibility of the utility vehicle to the approaching train driver the method of working within Dollands Moor yard any underlying management factorslast_img read more

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Press release: The £2.4 million UK / South Korean 5G challenge

first_img Augmented Reality (AR) experiences in busy public spaces, giving tourists and commuters a dramatic new insight to the city and the way in which they experience it. Optimisation of traffic management systems, to better manage commuter flows, reduce overcrowding, improve safety and better protect the environment. Providing uninterrupted infotainment services for commuters such as interactive content, video streaming and gaming, with more reliable and faster services across the subway network. Chairman of 5G Forum Executive Committee, Prof. DongKu Kim said: We want the UK to be a world leader in 5G services, and this collaboration with South Korea will create new opportunities for UK businesses abroad and encourage more inward investment. The UK has a huge pool of 5G scientific research and engineering talent, and I would encourage all businesses in this field to enter this innovative competition. The trials will enable businesses and researchers to investigate and address a number of user and technical challenges that are crucial to the future roll out of 5G.These could include: British businesses are renowned for their creative content, design and innovation. We welcome the chance for our technologists and researchers to collaborate with them to create the next generation of mobile entertainment and services. Additional benefits this innovative collaboration will deliver include:center_img New industry partnerships between UK and South Korean institutions to further trade opportunities for UK companies in South Korea. New South Korean investment opportunities in the UK, helping to diversify the UK telecoms supply chain. Greater access for UK Industry and academia to South Korean technology, hardware, software and intellectual property. UK and South Korean businesses to pilot 5G technology on Seoul subways Augmented Reality (AR) trials could revolutionise tourism sector Competition will help drive South Korean investment in the UK and create new opportunities for UK businesses in South Korea A new UK / South Korea 5G competition has been launched by Digital Minister Margot James to help prepare the UK for a future 5G rollout. Businesses are now being encouraged to apply for a unique opportunity to trial new content and services on South Korea’s transport networks.The UK and South Korean Governments are funding a £2.4 million project to support businesses in the two countries and develop 5G technology. The project will live test content and services on the Seoul metropolitan subway system.5G is the next generation of mobile connectivity, providing speeds up to 20 times faster than current 4G technology.Minister for Digital, Margot James said: The funding competition is part of the UK’s 5G Testbed & Trials (5GTT) Programme, which aims to maximise the opportunities for UK businesses, especially SMEs, to develop new 5G applications and services for both domestic and global markets. It is a key part of the Government’s modern Industrial Strategy – making sure that the UK has the right infrastructure in place to be a world leader in new 5G technology.The deadline for applying is 1st June and the competition is being managed by UK5G on behalf of DCMS.ENDSNotes to EditorsDetails on how to apply are available onlineMore information on the 5G Testbeds & Trials Programme is available herePlease contact [email protected] at UK5G for more information on the competition call.Businesses and organisations from the UK are invited to apply for up to £1.2 million funding from DCMS to deliver the project, finishing 31st March 2021.The test environment will be provided by South Korean partners and the technical architecture provided is a hybrid 4G/5G network, but any solution must be designed for a 5G future. The subway in Seoul can deliver high bandwidth (of up to 1.5Gbps) to passenger train carriages.The Industrial Strategy sets out a long term plan to boost the productivity and earning power of people throughout the UK. It sets out how we are building a Britain fit for the future – how we will help businesses create better, higher-paying jobs in every part of the UK with investment in skills, industries and infrastructure.last_img read more

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Dave Schools, Jerry Joseph, Steve & Johnny Kimock Announce New Band, Maximum Love Vibes

first_imgThere is a new band in town, and they go by the name of Maximum Love Vibes. The new group is comprised of four musicians that are already quite familiar with each other: Widespread Panic’s Dave Schools, guitarist Jerry Joseph (whose songs WSP has frequently adopted), Mike Gordon solo band drummer Johnny Kimock, and his father, decorated guitarist Steve Kimock.Maximum Love Vibes will make their debut next month, with a three-night “destination event” at Girwood, Alaska’s The Sitzmark at Alyeska Resort set for February 21st, 22nd, and 23rd. As of now, these are the only dates on the books for the new group, though we hope they make their way down to the continental U.S. soon for the masses to enjoy.You can find more info on the trio of Maximum Love Vibes shows and purchase tickets via Steve Kimock’s website here.[H/T JamBase]last_img read more

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Fears of national insecurity

first_imgAs the Political Twitterati like to say, “Elections have consequences.” Indeed, through the first nine months of Donald Trump’s presidency, nowhere has the vast philosophical and operational sea change between the Trump and Obama administrations been as stark as in the realm of national security.From sharply rising tensions with a nuclear North Korea and decertification of the Iran nuclear deal to China’s growing global assertiveness and the State Department pullback from projecting American values, such as democracy and human rights, around the world, the United States faces urgent national security challenges.In a panel discussion Monday evening at Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) moderated by MSNBC host Rachel Maddow, former members of President Obama’s cabinet, including onetime Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter, Secretary of Homeland Security Jeh Johnson, Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz, and Samantha Power, U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, described what they see as a fraying of alliances, a loss of credibility with allies and enemies, a stepping back as a leader on human rights and democracy, and a relinquishment of diplomacy as a critical component of national security.Moniz, a nuclear physicist, faculty emeritus at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and senior fellow at Harvard’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, said “The possibility of a nuclear weapon being used — probably through miscalculation — is higher today than at any time since the end of the Cold War and arguably, since the Cuban Missile Crisis.”Moniz, who played a leading role in negotiating the Iran nuclear deal for the United States, said he worries that the president’s “loose talk” about nuclear weapons and the role they should play in our national security indicates that the administration views them not just as a deterrent but as a tool for possible use on the battlefield.Moderator Rachel Maddow (center) was “humbled to the point of being intimidated” in leading the discussion between former Obama cabinet secretaries Jeh Johnson (from left), Ash Carter, Ernest Moniz, and Samantha Power at the JFK Jr. Forum. Jon Chase/Harvard Staff Photographer“I think that would be a terrible mistake to do that. I’m not arguing against having a strong deterrent — we need that — but that’s a different issue from elevating it in our national security strategy,” he said.Even if Trump’s Twitter brinksmanship with North Korean leader Kim Jong-Un is only bluster, what concerns Moniz most is such words can chip away at the goodwill and multilateral relationships that the United States has spent decades building globally since the end of World War II, doing “damage that will take a long time to repair,” he said. “We don’t know how much is real, how much is verbiage in the end. But even if it’s verbiage, the reality is allies are responding to that.”Carter, now director of the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, said the looming prospect of a nuclear confrontation between the United States and North Korea is “concerning.”“I don’t know where that’s going to go,” he said. Though the United States would “win,” he added, “the intensity of violence” it would generate would be a level “the world has not seen since the last Korean War.”Noting how President Harry Truman spoke of being haunted after he dropped atomic bombs on Japan during World War II in 1945, Power said there’s “a real question” whether Trump’s worldview would restrain him from such catastrophic action.“Is President Trump a person who gets haunted, who can think about other people, even in this country, as deserving of empathy and respect, or can he put himself in the shoes of others?” said Power, the Anna Lindh Professor of the Practice of Global Leadership and Public Policy at the Kennedy School, the Perrin Moorhead Grayson and Bruns Grayson Fellow at the Radcliffe Institute, and professor of practice at Harvard Law School. “There are grounds for worry, obviously.”After Trump announced last week that he will decertify the deal even though most experts agree that Iran is complying with its provisions, Moniz said the decision causes real harm for the United States even if Congress does not ultimately pull out.“It is true that it did not take us out of the Iran agreement, but it has already done damage with our allies,” he said. “If we were to abrogate the agreement while Iran is complying, it’s just a long list of negatives for us and for our national security.”The panel stressed the vital but often underappreciated role that diplomacy plays in national security. “People tend to think diplomacy, like alliances, consists of favors we do for foreigners, and it’s not,” said Carter. “It’s one of the ways you get what you want.”Power said she is troubled by an administration that appears to “turn its back on even a concept of diplomacy or an investment in diplomacy” out of some “willful, sometimes even gratuitous desire to do the opposite” of President Obama, who strongly supported diplomatic solutions.The administration’s failure to fill critical overseas and career staff positions at the State Department has driven away some of the nation’s best negotiators, panelists said.“They’re fleeing the government because they see the signals” that diplomacy is no longer central to U.S. foreign policy and believe that Trump’s favorable comments toward authoritarian leaders such as in Turkey, the Philippines, and Russia indicate the United States doesn’t prioritize human rights. The administration is “very willfully saying that the way a country treats its own people just doesn’t matter to us anymore,’ said Power.Asked by a student what Trump’s legacy may be, Johnson, a senior fellow with the Belfer Center’s Homeland Security Project, said it would be unwise to suppose that his political success is a momentary aberration.“We shouldn’t assume this is a blip on the screen. As Americans get used to this style of presidency, there are a lot of people who just may say, what the heck, why should I change in 2020?” he told students. “So those of us who want change are going to have to work really, really hard for it with an incumbent in the White House we don’t like, if that’s the case.”last_img read more

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Double Parkway Ride: Ryan Davis plans a 938-mile out and back on the Blue Ridge Parkway

first_imgThere is never just one thing that inspires me to do something. I guess since the time I started riding, the mission to become faster, more efficient, and ride with more enthusiasm was derived by my surroundings and that inner force that continues to push me to do so. So what I’m doing is just going out and making something with it. I was always amazed by the people pushing their limits, whatever those may be—anything that pushes someone past their comfort zone. After I found what I wanted to push myself in, I’m finding ways to make that happen. How far do you plan to ride each day? I have biked it twice, one time in August a few years ago, and also last April. Both times I started in Cherokee and finished in about 7-9 days. The first time I was fully loaded with an approximately a 100-pound rig. The second time was probably around a 50 pounds. This go around, I’m aiming for around 50 pounds, but it will be mostly food and water. What do you think about for 989 miles? I chose spring for this very reason. I find it to have much lower traffic than summer and fall. School is still in and no holidays going on. The only thing during this time of year is that it can get cold, and weather can be interesting, so multi-seasonal gear is essential. Where will you sleep and eat along the way? What inspired the RCR ride? On May 4th, 7 am, at Rockfish Gap, Va., Ryan Davis is venturing out to complete an end-to-end-to-end ride of the Blue Ridge Parkway – 938 miles of self-supported bike packing. How will you handle the tourism vehicle traffic? I don’t know really. Back in 2000, a guy named Chris Boone cycled the 469 miles in a crazy fast time of 29 hours 36 min. People cycle the BRP all the time, but I’m not sure if anyone has ever done a self-supported ride out and back. My dad lives in Charlottesville, which is always a good environment to prepare, rest, and visit. I also think it would be a better location to leave my car. If I complete it in the rate I want to, I’ll be tired, and I don’t want a long drive home. You can track his progress here, or check back to Blue Ridge Outdoors for updates. We were able to catch up with Davis and ask a few questions before he begins his journey this week. Davis is going into this as an adventure cyclist, a certified nurse, someone living with Tourette’s Syndrome, and an avid lover of all things bikes and people. As his ride quickly approaches, he is eager for the self-discovering journey he is about to embark and the person he will come out as on the other side. Has anyone else done a double-thru-ride of the Parkway? The plan is to sleep as little as possible and still be able to get the mission done without destroying myself or putting myself in danger. I plan to bivy as much as possible, since it’s most efficient for a quick rest. The hard part is knowing when to stop or not. There are lots of variables when figuring out when and where to sleep. Shelter is sparse and legal camping is limited, so I’ll have to use my best judgement there. If I’m exhausted enough and I get to a place to where I feel like I’m endangering myself, I’ll take a nap somewhere. Have you biked the Parkway previously? I’ve been on an extremely low carb diet since New Year’s. I felt it was necessary to get lighter on the bike, so I dropped 25 pounds. My diet always changes when I get going on the bike though. I start to crave chocolate milk, fizzy drinks, peanut m&ms, chocolate muffins, and hopefully sandwiches. I’ll be burning through some calories, so getting enough will be my biggest concern. Of course I hope to manage a balanced diet, but the appetite gets weird after that many miles. I will have a tub of peanut butter in my jersey pocket, and a spoon in the other for emergencies. Why are you starting at Rockfish Gap? Are there logistical advantages? The idea of the RCR came to me in a pub in Mannheim, Germany, a few weeks after the Transatlantic Way Bike Race. I Just thought it would be cool to bring a little bit of that passion back, so I needed a place for it and wanted it to be in the region I call home. I couldn’t think of any other road than the Blue Ridge Parkway It’s all so beautiful. The viaduct is always a cool segment, and I love the tunnels, but I’m sure mile marker zero will be hard to beat. All the down hills will be good times. After a couple hundred miles it will all blend in essentially. I’m always hoping to see plenty of wildlife as well. I’m going to try and look at it not in days but as one long consecutive day, that way I’m not limited by night and day or when I should sleep or when I shouldn’t. My goal currently is to average 18-20 hours of saddle time per 24 hours, so however far I can get in that time. The RCR stands for Rockfish-Cherokee-Rockfish. It is a self-supported road cycling adventure, from mile marker 0, to mile marker 469, back to mile marker zero, all along the Blue Ridge Parkway. Basically it’s just me doing an out and back as fast as I can with no outside help, other than what the road provides. I just had to give it a name. I got the name idea from the famous Paris-Breast-Paris. The RCR and the force behind it was made for many, so right now all it as is me. Any favorite spots along the Parkway? Davis firmly believes in the power of bikes. He feels they bring people together and builds a strong community of passionate people. My basic needs are always first. It keeps the chatter at bay, but if those basic needs are met, I try to always think pleasant thoughts. I think about family, friends, the ones that helped me get to this very moment, love, and life’s unanswered questions. But my brain never slows down. I know I’ll be playing a lot of tricks on myself. The season is just starting, and I have Tourette Syndrome, so I am predicting it could get to be a problem. My tics can cause a lot of muscular strain in my neck, hips, wrist, and ankles, so I’ll have to focus on trying to calm that. If I end up going to a dark place, and I’m sure it will happen due to it being chemical to an extent, well, that is when the real challenge begins. Finding the strength to keep going at that point can be tough, but hopefully, I can understand it and just keep spinning.last_img read more

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Costa Rica sends 24 tons of narcotics to U.S. to be destroyed

first_imgBy Dialogo August 01, 2013 SAN JOSÉ, Costa Rica – The United States destroyed nearly 24 tons of cocaine and heroin that Costa Rica officials needed help eradicating, according to Costa Rica’s Judicial Investigation Organization (OIJ). The OIJ and Costa Rican authorities generally destroy narcotics domestically, but the amount of narcotics was so large they feared getting rid of it using their resources would damage the environment. The OIJ didn’t make the announcement until the 23 tons and 780 kilograms it sent to the city of Miami in the state of Florida was destroyed on July 29. The OIJ and the U.S. Embassy said Costa Rica worked with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to have the narcotics destroyed. The drugs’ street value was estimated to be as high as US$5 billion, according to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). “The removal of this much cocaine for destruction demonstrates the successful joint operations the U.S. and Costa Rica undertake in the fight against organized criminal networks as well as our ongoing co-operation,” Eric Turner, a U.S. Embassy spokesperson, said in a prepared statement. Costa Rica has emerged as a major transit nation for cocaine shipped from South America, according to the UNODC. [Tico Times (Costa Rica), 07/31/2013; Costa Rica Hoy (Costa Rica), 29/07/2013]last_img read more

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